Binding is performed in two traditional and modern methods, the traditional method is mostly used for exquisite and valuable books, which are often historical and handwritten, or handwritten and historical copies of Qurans, and the modern method, which uses machines It is semi-automatic and fully automatic for all kinds of printed books, magazines, receipts, catalogs, etc. is used
Binding tools are also different according to the aforementioned methods, here we introduce you to some traditional binding tools.
* Traditional binding tools:
1- Glue: The types of glues used in binding are: serish, serish, gum arabic and starch.
2- Needle: depending on the type of work, different needles are used.
3- Darfash: a sharp tool with a wooden handle that is used to pierce the bottom of leaflets.
4-Thread: It is used to sew parts of the book and the best type is silk thread. For strength and longer life, the thread is coated with wax, or so-called, it is waxed.
5- Stone under the hand: marble is used for the work of making the cover and bottom.
6- Scissors: ordinary and flat scissors are used to cut paper and cardboard.
7- Star: It is a metal tool in the shape of a star that is used to cut large papers, draw lines and draw tables.
8- Ruler: a 15 cm piece of wood that is narrow on one side and grooved on the other side. Its side is used to fold paper and glue the edges of leather to cardboard, and its tip is used to place nails on the back and on the cover. and the bottom groove is used to draw a line around the book.
9- Knives: Knives are available in different shapes that have different uses.
10- File and sandpaper: file and sandpaper are used to shave the edge of the cardboard and the edge of the book.
11- Fist or hammer: This device is used to beat and round the book’s inflection and to beat the leather after gluing it on the cardboard, which is made of brass or steel.
12- Blade: a wide iron knife with a wooden handle and very sharp edges, which is used to thin and shave skin and leather.
13- Kheed or Ashkanj: a wooden device that consists of two thick boards, which is opened and closed by two wooden screws and hammers on both sides, which is used to close and prepare the book for removal or to attach the bottom of the book. .
14- Paper: Paper is used for connecting and lining. Different types of paper: Khorasani, tin, Kashmiri, Khatai, Amoli, etc. Due to the rarity of the mentioned papers, gold and silver papers are used.
15- polished board: a very smooth and polished board, the best type of which is pear wood.
16- Color: In bookbinding, colors are divided into two categories: mental and physical colors.
17- Cardboard: It is used in making covers and has two categories, high-quality and low-quality. High-quality cardboard is completely smooth and strong.
18-Leather: The main material required for traditional binding and cover making is leather, on which all designs and sizes are made.
19- Zababi: patterns with patterns in different forms are called Zababi.
20- Gold leaf and gold powder: gold is used for making covers and paper coating.
21- Fabric: fabrics used in binding: cotton muslin, satin and coated fabrics instead of leather.
22 – The cutting knife is used to cut the edges of the book.
24 – Pargar
25 – Tabulating pen: a piece of metal, one side of which is turned into two rods in the middle, and the other side is a sharp rod.
27- Naqshbar: It is a tool for fuel cover, the material of which is water-treated metal and its shape is like a knife with a sharp and sharp head, and its entire length is covered in a wrapper except for the cutting part.
28- Brush: depending on the type of work, fine and coarse types are used.
29- Pollen: After the pattern is drawn on the screen, the master penman makes holes in the pattern with the help of a soot so that the soot can transfer the pattern to the desired surface.
30- Corner rounder: It is an iron device with a wooden handle, which is approximately 15 to 20 cm long, has a sharp tip and a hollow semi-cylindrical edge, which is used to round the corners of the cardboard edge of the cover.
The image below shows some traditional binding tools
* Modern binding:
Until the beginning of the 20th century, i.e. the advent of machine binding, binding was done manually, from 1930 onwards, i.e. with the advent of the first equipped binding machines, all the steps of binding were done by machine. Of course, binding is still done by hand today. Manual binding is stronger, but it is obviously much slower than machine binding, and machine binding has always been evolving with the invention of more equipped machines.
In the 1950s, thread-free binding called “Tehcheb” was invented and became popular. This method of binding, which was done without using sewing and by machine, replaced bottom embroidery. From now on, using a conveyor belt, the binding process was done at a high speed and in a production line.
In the early 1960s, the various stages of binding, from sewing to pressing and packing, were done without manual intervention. In the late 1960s, machines were developed that could bind up to 60 book covers in one minute. In today’s advanced machine binding, various stages of binding, which were done separately and by different machines, have been integrated. These machines perform all the steps of binding, even in the last step they pack for distribution.
Now, in machine bindings, in addition to arranging, cutting and gluing sheets together, there is an attempt to beautify book covers using modern technologies. Since using jewels in the cover will be very expensive, today’s designers use other things to beautify the cover. These elements, which are added to books in binding, will make the product look beautiful and thus attract customers.
A few techniques used in cover making that lead to the beauty of the cover are:
Gold plating – use of local UV – heat press – embossing – use of cover – use of velvet cover.
In addition to these things that are added to the cover with printing machines, there are other things that the bookmakers can use in making the cover, some of them are as follows:
Badrageh lining – book bag – ribbon – box for book collection.
Below is a picture of some automatic and semi-automatic binding machines for your familiarity. It is obvious that it is not possible to show all the automatic and modern binding machines in this brief statement.