Definition of binding and history of binding in the world and Iran

1- What does binding mean?

At first, we will examine the lexical meaning of “Sahafi” based on the definitions of Dehkhoda dictionary and several dictionaries:

* Dehkhoda’s dictionary: a bookmaker is defined as someone who sews and binds a book, or a book cover maker, and binding is defined as an act done by a bookmaker.

* Farsi culture: 1- The action and job of a bookmaker, binding and binding a book 2- (noun) Dekan Sahaf.

* Specific culture: 1- (Hams) book binding and binding. 2- Binding shop.

* Farhang Omid: 1- The job and practice of a bookkeeper, binding and binding books. 2 – (noun) the place where this work is done.

* Islamic encyclopedia: (Wiki Ahl al-Bayt) The technique of arranging and tying together the pages of a book or the like and placing them between two covers (covers) in order to keep the pages together and prevent them from being worn or torn and facilitating their use is called binding. .

* General encyclopedia: 1-Binding, or book binding, refers to the act of folding, arranging (putting folded forms together), stitching, binding, and finally cutting the book. 2- Binding is the art of arranging and tying together the pages of a book or the like and placing them between two covers (covers) in order to keep the pages together and prevent them from being worn or torn and to facilitate their use.

* Definition of binding in simple terms: According to the meanings and definitions stated above, in general, it can be said that binding, which was also called “paperwork” in the past, can be simply stated as follows: “collecting a number of sheets of paper and Sticking them together with glue or sewing, and then putting two covers on the back and on the pages and sealing them”

Explanation: In addition to book binding, papermaking also includes the preparation of copies and copywriting and reproduction of books.

The binding of a book can also be defined as follows: folding, putting the pages together and gluing, finally putting the cover on the connected pages.
2- The history of binding in the world:

According to the Islamic encyclopedia (Wiki Ahl al-Bayt), the history of cover making has been stated differently, and some have considered it to be parallel to the formation of the book. Some have also said that the technique of binding by tying the edges of the pages to each other became common after the use of parchment became popular.
Sumerians used to store and archive clay tablets on 45 cm wide shelves and sometimes kept these tablets in jars and small jars. In order to preserve their writings, the Chinese used long corrugated paper and folded them into a cross. In India, there were tall trees called “tari” that were written on their leaves. Then, by passing the thread through the hole created between the leaves, these papers were attached to each other. In the central and northern cities of India, they used the bark of the “tuz” tree, which was called “Bahuj”, for writing; The written papers were numbered with consecutive numbers, after the book was finished, the papers were wrapped in a piece of cloth and placed between two tablets that were chosen to be the same size as the book. This type of book, which was used for writing letters, was called “puti”. To store the Egyptian scrolls, which were made of papyrus and sometimes reached five meters in length, they were wrapped around a cylindrical stick.
In the first bound books, the pages of the book were placed between two thick boards and the boards were closed with latches or tapes or leather straps. The material that was usually used for covering was leather, but ivory, silver, gold, silk and velvet were also used.
Books in their present form did not exist until the second century AD. In Egypt, papyrus scrolls were gradually replaced by papyrus sheets or parchment. The holy books of this period had a rectangular shape and their pages were sewn together from the bottom. For more protection, these books were covered with strong covers made from papyrus scraps or wood sheets. With the passage of time and the development of leather tanning and the creation of parchment, they drew thin leather on this cover and even decorated it with golden designs.
The history of book binding in the West, as far as is known, begins with the Roman double-lattice tablets. These covers were for wax tablets that were connected from the bottom with rings. Du-lat paintings were made of ebony, boxwood, ivory or some hard materials, and sometimes the top cover was elaborately carved and the actual text was carved with a needle on the wax surface.
The emergence of books in the form of a codex coincides with the dawn of Christianity. In particular, Coptic bindings surviving from the early Christian communities of Egypt often show the main features of the binding of codices. From the early bindings of the Egyptian Coptic Church, only fragments remain.
Muslims took the art of Coptic leatherwork and gilding to Sicily and Spain. Western Christians have a tradition that goes back to the late ancient Roman era. In Europe and Africa, the emergence of the codex was considered an improvement, but the way of work and decorations were different. In the early Middle Ages, binding was done with leather and cardboard, but there are few examples from before the 11th century. An example of jeweled binding has survived from the 7th century. The binding of jewels, which was commissioned by emperors and nobles between the 9th and 12th centuries, was mostly to show artistic skills. Examples of these bindings from the 9th century are available in the National Library of the State of Bavaria in Germany.
3- The history of bookbinding in Iran:

It is not possible to say precisely from which year and period bookbinding and bookmaking started, but according to the history stated in the general encyclopedia, bookbinding and bookmaking reached its peak in the Safavid era, and Isfahan artists showed unparalleled innovation and creativity in its development. From

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